Integrated Coastal Management Programme of India

The Integrated Coastal Management Programme aims to safeguard and strengthen the ecological security of coastal areas and the livelihood security of coastal communities. The programme will give attention to both the landward and seaward sides of the coast. The objective of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Project is to build national capacity for implementation of comprehensive coastal management approach in the country, and piloting the integrated coastal zone management approach in states of Gujarat, Orissa and West Bengal. The programme is funded by IDA. May 2011 edition of Yojana had a snippet about Integrated Coastal Management Programme of India

Necessity of the Programme
Our coastal ecology is under a lot of pressure due to various reasons. There is pollution, discharge from ships, dredging, sand mining, excessive fishing etc. In addition there is the impending effect of climate change. All this has made our coastal ecology fragile, putting at risk all communities that survive on it.

Legal Protection
The Ministry of Environment and Forests issued the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Notification in 1991 under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 to provide comprehensive measures for the protection of our coastal environment. The latest notification was issued in 2011

Objectives of the Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 2011
1. To ensure livelihood security to the fishing communities and other local communities living in the coastal areas.
2. To conserve and protect coastal stretches, and
3. To promote development in a sustainable manner based on scientific principles, taking into account the dangers of natural hazards in the coastal areas and sea level rise due to global warming.

Classification of Coastal Zones
Coastal Zones arre classified as CRZ-I (ecological sensitive), CRZ-II (built-up area), CRZ-III (rural area), and CRZ-IV (water areas up to the territorial waters and the tidal-influenced water bodies).

Protection of Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep
A separate draft Island Protection Zone Notification has been issued for protection of the islands of Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep under Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

Coastal Regulation Zone extends to 12 nautical miles
Water area up to 12 nautical miles and the tidal influenced water bodies have been included under the Coastal Regulation Zone areas in order to-control the discharge of untreated sewage, effluents and the disposal of solid wastes as such activities endanger the fish and their ecosystem, conserve and protect habitats in the marine area such as corals and coral reefs and associated biodiversity, marine sanctuaries and biosphere reserves, sea grass beds etc. which act as spawning, nursery and rearing grounds for fish and fisheries, regulate activities in the marine and coastal waters such as dredging, sand mining etc.