Low Temperature Thermal Desalination Technology

Abnormal Weather Pattern-Recent Phenomena
In recent years, India is witnessing variability of the weather phenomena and development of abnormal weather pattern like drought, flood, flash flood, cyclone, rain induced landslides, heat and cold waves, etc. on a continuous basis. Records of past weather events show that extreme values in respect of heavy rainfall, maximum and minimum temperatures, seasonal rainfall etc.Variability of the weather phenomena and development of abnormal weather pattern like drought, flood, flash flood, cyclone, rain induced landslides, heat and cold waves, etc. on a continuous basis. Records of past weather events show that extreme values in respect of heavy rainfall, maximum and minimum temperatures, seasonal rainfall etc.India 
Meteorological Department (IMD) is enhancing its observational network under the modernization plan by installing a network of Doppler Weather Radars (DWR) , Automatic Weather Stations (AWS), Automatic Rain Gauge Station (ARGS), etc. for monitoring abnormal weather patterns and upgrading its forecasting capabilities., so that advance warning can be provided to National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) , Ministry of Home Affairs, and Ministry of Agriculture to tackle the impacts of the adverse and extreme weather phenomena.

Low Temperature Thermal Desalination Technology to convert Seawater into Potable Water 
Low Temperature Thermal Desalination (LTTD) technology for conversion of seawater into potable water is successfully commissioned in the country at 4 places. Kavaratti, Minicoy, Agatti, Lakshadweep and Chennai are benefitted with this technology. The capacity of each of these LTTD plants is 1 lakh litre per day of potable water.The National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT), an autonomous body of the Ministry of Earth Sciences, has been responsible for design, develop, demonstrate and commission the LTTD plants in selected coastal locations. The LTTD is a process under which the warm surface sea water is flash evaporated at low pressure and the vapour is condensed with cold deep sea water. The technology is indigenous, robust and environment friendly. According to the cost estimates made recently by an independent agency for LTTD technology, the operational costs per litre of desalinate water currently works to be 19 paise. Efforts are being made to reduce operational cost by adopting optimum design parameters.

Genome Research Initiatives of India 
The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) is implementing a major programme in the area of Human Genetics & Analysis since 1990-91Department has established 21 genetic diagnosis cum counselling units to provide patient services across the country, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting & Diagnostics of DBT in collaboration with Nizam’s Institute of Medical Science , Hyderabad and National Institute of Biomedical Genomics (NIBMG) in Kalyani, West Bangal are notable one. India is a major participant in the International Cancer Genomics Consortium with focus on oral cancer.

Tsunami Warning Service Bulletins to the Indian Ocean Rim Countries by ITEWC Soon The Indian tsunami early warning centre (ITEWC) will start providing the tsunami warning service bulletins to the Indian Ocean Rim Countries on an operational basis after the Indian Ocean Tsunami drill scheduled for 12th October, 2011.From May 2011, India started rendering Level-2 tsunami regional service on trial basis to the entire Indian Ocean rim countries. The Indian tsunami early warning centre (ITEWC) is equipped with world-class computational, communication and technical support facilities and is considered as one of the most modern tsunami warning centres as on date.

Extinction of Birds in Urban areas 
About 87 bird species in India are listed as globally threatened, which are on the verge of extinction   as per IUCN Red List.  In addition, more than 60 species are near threatened.White-rumped Vulture is the most critically endangered bird in the list. Red list has three categories - CR=Critically Endangered; EN=Endangered; VU=Vulnerable

Priority Environmental Problems of Himalaya 
Having the inherent environmental problems of natural occurrence such as, earthquakes, landslides, soil erosion and flash floods; Himalaya is confronted with a range of other problems of anthropogenic origin. They include: accelerated soil erosion, rain water runoff, increasing incidence of landslides, siltation and pollution of water bodies, drying up of springs, deforestation and degradation of forests, scarcity of fodder and fuel wood, overgrazing , forest fires, alterations in wildlife habitats and wildlife attacks, low crop yield, increasing wastelands and invasion of alien weeds, eroding biodiversity, shifting cultivation, etc.
Himalayans are migrating -  The increasing shortage of basic resources such as, viable cropland size, forests to sustain livestock, water for irrigation and drinking, marginal and rain fed holdings on difficult terrain, low soil fertility and low crop production, vagaries of climate and lack of infrastructure and market for processing and sale of on-farm and off-farm produce make it difficult to sustain the livelihood of the rural people. These factors, coupled with other human needs and aspirations such as, better education and health facilities, job opportunities, etc., compel people to migrate and find out other mode of livelihood in the urban areas of the country. Therefore, in this region of high ecological and social heterogeneity the task is challenging and demands high interdisciplinary skills and vision to integrate different scientific disciplines that safeguards the environmental concerns and at the same time addresses the socio-economic development of the inhabitants. Therefore, development actions distinct from other regions of the country are the need of the hour.

Country’s First-Ever Nuclear Gallery Opened
India’s first-ever permanent exhibition on nuclear power , called ‘Hall of Nuclear Power’ has been dedicated to the nation at Nehru Science Centre in Worli, Mumbai The exhibition, titled “Hall of Nuclear Power”, covers almost all the aspects of nuclear energy, which include extensive information about nuclear power generation, its basics, productions, fuel processing, transportation, safety, security, nuclear waste and its management. Also, it talks about the non-power application which includes nuclear medicines, food irradiation technology, etc

Negotiable Warehouse Receipt (NWRs) system for Farmers 
With a view to develop warehousing in the country and to promote easy financing for farmers, the Government of India has set up the Warehousing Developing and Regulatory Authority (WDRA) and introduced a Negotiable Warehouse Receipt (NWRs) system. Farmers can seek loans from the banks against the Negotiable Warehouse Receipts issued by WDRA. NWRs are issued to the farmers against their commodities stored in warehouses registered with WDRA.  It helps farmers to seek loans from banks and to avoid distress sale of agricultural produce.  Farmers do not need to sell their produce immediately under any constraints they can store and sell it later on getting attractive prices. 40 agriculture commodities have been notified against which receipts can be issued. 
Advantages of Warehouse Receipts to Farmers 
  • Scientific warehousing will provide protection to the farmers against the risks of distress sale due to glut in the market at the time of procurement. 
  • Due to linkage of each registered warehouse with the banks/financial institutions, the farmers will be able to get instant credit against Negotiable Warehouse Receipt. 
  • It will provide increased liquidity in the rural areas and thereby the empowerment of the farmers. 
  • Banks/financial institutions will provide better lending conditions because of increasing comfort and reduction in the cost of capital. 
  • Since all registered warehouses and the commodities lodged there in are insured, farmers will not be subjected to any damage/risks/losses of commodities in quantitative and qualitative terms

source : pib.nic.in - august