Assam Facts

Assam is a state in the north-eastern region of India. Its capital is Dispur, located within the municipal area of Guwahati city. Located south of the eastern Himalayas, Assam comprises the Brahmaputra and the Barak river valleys along with the Karbi Anglong and the North Cachar Hills. Assam is surrounded by 6 of the other 7 Sister States: Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and Meghalaya. Geographically Assam and these states are connected to the rest of India via a narrow strip of land in West Bengal called the Siliguri Corridor or "Chicken's Neck".

Assam is known for Assam tea, large and old petroleum resources (the first oil reserves of India were discovered in Assam in the late 19th century), Assam silk and for its rich biodiversity.

Assam shares international borders with Bhutan and Bangladesh. Assam became a part of the British India after the British occupied the region following the First Anglo-Burmese War of 1824–1826.

Assam has successfully conserved the one-horned Indian rhinoceros from near extinction, along with the tiger and numerous species of birds, and it provides one of the last wild habitats for the Asian elephant.

It is becoming an increasingly popular destination for wildlife tourism, and Kaziranga and Manas are both World Heritage Sites. Assam was also known for its Sal tree forests and forest products, much depleted now. A land of high rainfall, Assam is endowed with lush greenery and the mighty river Brahmaputra, whose tributaries and oxbow lakes provide the region with a unique hydro-geomorphic and aesthetic environment.

As the Bramhaputra flows in Assam the climate here is cold and there is rainfall most of the month. Brahmaputra, the life-line of Assam is an antecedent river, older than the Himalayas. The river with steep gorges and rapids in Arunachal Pradesh entering Assam, becomes a braided river (at times 16 km wide) and with tributaries, creates a flood plain (Brahmaputra Valley: 80–100 km wide, 1000 km long).

The hills of Karbi Anglong, North Cachar and those in and close to Guwahati (also Khasi-Garo Hills) now eroded and dissected are originally parts of the South Indian Plateau system. In the south, the Barak originating in the Barail Range (Assam-Nagaland border) flows through the Cachar district with a 40–50 km wide valley and enters Bangladesh with the name Surma.

The Kaziranga and Manas are the two World Heritage Sites in the region. The Kaziranga is the home for the rare Indian Rhinoceros, while Manas is a tiger sanctuary. There are a number of tropical rainforests in Assam, including the Dehing Patkai rainforest.

The Kaziranga National park area is circumscribed by the Brahmaputra River, which forms the northern and eastern boundaries, and the Mora Diphlu, which forms the southern boundary. Other notable rivers within the park are the Diphlu and Mora Dhansiri.

The Manas National park is known for its rare and endangered endemic wildlife such as the Assam Roofed Turtle, Hispid Hare, Golden Langur and Pygmy Hog.Manas is famous for its population of the Wild water buffalo. The Manas river is a major tributary of Brahmaputra River, which passes through the heart of the national park.

Dipor Bil (Deepor Beel) is located to the south-west of Guwahati city, in Kamrup district of Assam. It is a permanent freshwater lake, in a former channel of the Brahmaputra River, to the south of the main river.

With the "Tropical Monsoon Rainforest Climate", Assam is temperate (summer max-35–38 °C and winter min-6–8 °C) and experiences heavy rainfall and high humidity.

Please read on

  1. Cachar Hills (Dima Hasao)
  2. Karbi Anglong Hills
  3. Kaziranga National Park [known worldwide for the one-horned rhinos]
  4. Manas National park
  5. Sal tree forests
  6. Brahmaputra river valleys and the Barak river valleys
  7. Oxbow lakes
  8. World's largest river island -Majuli
  9. Dibrugarh plains with a very wide (10+ km) Brahmaputra River
  10. Dehing Patkai rainforest
  11. Animals - Spotted deer, clouded leopard, golden langur, one-horned rhinos, asian elephant, White-winged Wood Duck (state bird)

January 7th 2014 - Hindu News - Over 3,000 people from the Karbi and Rengma Naga tribes have been taking shelter in relief camps in the Bokajan area of central Assam’s Karbi Anglong hills district since December 27 after they were forced to leave their homes due to violent clashes between the ethnic insurgent Karbi People’s Liberation Tigers (KPLT) and the Rengma Naga Hills Protection Force (RNHPF).

The KPLT is a breakaway faction of the ethnic insurgent Karbi Longri N.C. Hills Liberation Front (KLNLF). The KLNLF is demanding a separate State comprising two hill districts — Kabri Anglong and Dima Hasao (North Cachar Hills)— and is now engaged in talks with the Centre and the State government. When the KLNLF signed the Suspension of Operation agreement with the Centre and the Assam government, about 20 cadres of the outfit parted ways and formed the KPLT in 2010. The KPLT has been demanding the creation of a Hemprek Kanthim (self-ruled homeland) for the Karbi people. The KLNLF was a breakaway faction of the erstwhile insurgent outfit United People’s Democratic Solidarity.

The RNHPF was formed in 2012 for protection of the Rengma Nagas from KPLT attacks. The outfit has been demanding the creation of a regional council for the Rengma Nagas of Karbi Anglong.