Eco-Sensitive Zones (ESZs) around Protected Areas

The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) came out with new guidelines to create eco-sensitive zones (ESZs) around Protected Areas to prevent ecological damage caused due to developmental activities around National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries in 2011.

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The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013

Following are some important features of the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Bill, 2011, passed by Parliament on Jan 18, 2013.

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Central Information Commission of India

The Central Information Commission (CIC) set up under the Right to Information Act is the authorised body, established in 2005, under the Government of India to act upon complaints from those individuals who have not been able to submit information requests to a Central Public Information Officer or State Public Information Officer due to either the officer not having been appointed, or because the respective Central Assistant Public Information Officer or State Assistant Public Information Officer refused to receive the application for information under the RTI Act.

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National Human Rights Commission of India

The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) of India is an autonomous public body constituted on 12 October 1993 under the Protection of Human Rights Ordinance of 28 September 1993. It was given a statutory basis by the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 (TPHRA).

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National Development Council

The National Development Council (NDC) is the apex body for decision making and deliberations on development matters in India, presided over by the Prime Minister. It was set up in 1952. The Council comprises the Prime Minister, the Union Cabinet Ministers, Chief Ministers of all States or their substitutes, representatives of the Union Territories and the members of the Commissions. Ministers of State with independent charge are also invited to the deliberations of the Council.

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Planning Commission of India

Planning Commission of India was established in accordance with article 39 of the constitution which is a part of directive principles of state policy.

Rudimentary economic planning, deriving the sovereign authority of the state, first initiated in India in 1938 by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose when he was the Congress president and drafted by Meghnad Saha.

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Statutory Liquidity Ratio and Cash Reserve Ratio

Statutory liquidity ratio (SLR) refers amount that the commercial banks require to maintain in the form of gold or Government approved securities before providing credit to the customers. Statutory Liquidity Ratio is determined and maintained by the Reserve Bank of India in order to control the expansion of bank credit.

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What is Marginal Standing Facility

Marginal Standing Facility, MSF is the rate at which banks can borrow overnight from RBI.This was introduced in the monetary policy of RBI for the year 2011-2012. The MSF is pegged 100bps or a % above the repo rate.Banks can borrow funds through MSF when there is a considerable shortfall of liquidity. This measure has been introduced by RBI to regulate short-term asset liability mismatches more effectively.

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Constitutional Body : Election Commission of India

The Election Commission of India is an autonomous, constitutionally established federal authority responsible for administering all the electoral processes in the Republic of India. Under the supervision of the commission, free and fair elections have been held in India at regular intervals as per the principles enshrined in the Constitution. The Election Commission has the power of superintendence, direction and control of all elections to the Parliament of India and the state legislatures and of elections to the office of the President of India and the Vice-President of India.

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